Charles Edward Stuart was born in exile in 1720, and spent his early life at the Stuart court in Rome. The grandson of the deposed Stuart King James, he made a famous attempt to raise a rebellion among the clans of Scotland to march on London and re-establish his father as king. Initially Bonnie Prince Charlie, as he became known, was successful in his attempt and swiftly took control of Scotland, but the real prize of England was to elude him. Ultimately his rash spirit of adventure and questionable leadership would lead to bitter defeat at the hands of the Duke of Cumberland and the death of many a Scot. After a series of hair-raising escapes, the young Prince made it safely back to France. To an extent the high-water mark of his life had been passed, and the bonnie Prince slowly declined into alcoholism and obscurity.